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Change Language Mars Analysis Project
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Aram Chaos - Feature sizes



We encourage you to verify the source images for yourself, rather than just simply accept the facts that are presented here. Exact details of the used image templates can be found here.

Some reports on this website are based on previous ones. So it is extremely important to read the reports in chronological order. Details can turn up that were probably already have been analyzed in detail. If you are new here and you directly start reading the recent reports without prior knowledge, then it could happen that the required context is not recognizable. You do yourself and us a favor when you first start with the oldest reports.

This report is directly referenced to structure anomalies that have been discovered in Aram Chaos. We recommend that you first review the previous reports, if you have not read them yet.

These include the following documents:

3. Many details of the facility complex in Aram Chaos
2. The Aram Chaos facility complex
1. Structures in Aram Chaos

Explanatory Notes

In previous analysis reports the size aspect of the relevant structures was still left largely open. But also the proportions are significant, in order to assess how realistic it is to assume an object with a certain size. Putative entrances or lettering with dimensions of several kilometers, would make all explanatory models implausible. To support the existence of artificial structures and their usefulness it is essential to determine the details of their size.

In summary, the dimensions for the following structures have to be determined:

The structure sizes which have to be determined Analysis Report
Diameter of the hollowed mountain read
Size of the structure anomaly on the mountaintop read
Path width of the ramp at the mountain formation read
Size of the winged symbol on the ramp read
Size of the main entrance at the ATLAS station read
Size of the side entrance to the ATLAS station read
Size of the "water" jet at the ATLAS station read
Size of the dragon mouth at the Ladon cave read
Size of the snake heads at the Ladon cave read

The Procedure for Calculating the Sizes of the Relevant Structures

The Malin Space Science Systems External Link have currently published on an official website all images that the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has taken during its mission. In addition to the images the corresponding meta information is attached, so it is possible to calculate the feature sizes from these data. Within the region of "Aram Chaos" on three images of Mars Global Surveyors significant structural abnormalities has been dicovered that build the basis for our analysis work.

Each picture that was created by the Mars Global Surveyor, is provided with a unique image identifier. Basic status information, like the time of admission, coordinates of the imaged region, distance to the planet's surface, and more are tabulated on the website to each listed image. The first image we are using for size measurements bears the image ID "M11-00099" and has a resolution of 6784 pixels in length and 672 pixels in width. Another detail within the attached info table is the so-called scaled pixel width. This value specifies the image resolution in meters per pixel. This information would be suitable in order to calculate the size of individual structures. The scaled pixel width is specified with 4.34 meters.

Click on image to enlarge

Accordingly, the size of the imaged region should be calculated by multiplying the specified 4.34 meters with the total pixel width and the total pixel length of the image.

Total image length: 6784 * 4.34 = 29442.56 m
Total image width: 672 * 4.34 = 2916.48 m

The calculation yields a result of 2916.48 meters for the width and 29,442.56 meters for the length. The result shows, however, a deviation to the values in the info table. We have here the appropriate width of 2.91 km, But the length has a value of 45.31 km. This is far away from the calculated value of 29.4 km. At this point there is still another value of importance. It is the so-called pixel aspect ratio. This value represents the quotient of the width of a pixel x and its height y. If the aspect ratio is not equal 1, then this has either a compression or expansion of the image in consequence. This effect is shown in the following example image.

In this case the specified pixel scale width is only of limited help for a size calculation. However the ratio of meters per pixel must be known to accurately measure the structures on the image. The calculation of this can be done via the rule of three. The purpose of this calculation is to determine the ratio of meter size to one pixel. Well known are the dimensions of the total image size in pixels and meters. Thus there are three known sizes and one unknown that can be inserted into an solvable equation. For calculating the extent of a pixel in X and Y direction we need an equation for each one.

6784 : 1 = 45.31 : X

solved for X:

X = 45.31 * 1 : 6784
X = 0,006678 ~ 6.68 m

672 : 1 = 2.91 : Y

solved for Y:

Y = 2.91 * 1 : 672
Y = 0.004330 ~ 4.33 m

The measurement of the discovered structures can be calculated on the basis of this pixel expansion. However this would be much easier if the original image is accordingly adjusted. In this case it would be advisable when the image is stretched so that a pixel has the same extent in the Y direction as in X direction, in order to have a value of 6.68 meters. This can be achieved when the shorter side length is divided by the desired expansion per pixel (in this case 6.68 m).

X = 672 * 4.33 : 6.68
X = 435.59 Pixel

According to this calculation the side with the total length of 672 pixels must be compressed to rounded 436 pixels, so that the expansion of a pixel has 6.68 meters in X and Y direction.

In the following presentation on the left section the entrance to the ATLAS station is shown from the original recording. In the right pane is the appropriate scaled version. The shown image details are shown here enlarged for a better view. In the scale faithful representation a pixels would correspond to 6.68 meters in height and width.

Click on image to enlarge

Though the compression of image shows a correct representation of the scale, during this process however details and image information is lost. For general image analysis, the original recording must be used. For the measurement of the individual structures, you might take the scaled version.

The Calculated Values

The following list shows the measurement results of the striking structures in Aram Chaos.

Artificial Structures Dimensions Imaging
Diameter of the hollowed mountain ca. 2km view
Size of the structure anomaly at the peak ca. 97m view
Path width of the ramp at the mountain ca. 60m wide view
Size of the winged symbol at the mountain ca. 153m wide / ca. 113m high view
Size of the main entrance to the ATLAS station ca. 100m wide / ca. 73m high view
Size of the side entrance to the ATLAS station ca. 60m wide view
Size of the "ATLAS" lettering ca. 80m wide / ca. 33m high view
Size of the "water" beam at the ATLAS station ca. 481m long view
Size of the dragon mouth at the Ladon rock cave ca. 174m wide view
Size of the snake heads at the Ladon rock cave ca. 147m wide view

Visualization of the Size Ratios - The ATLAS Lettering

Even with the indication of the size dimensions, these values remain relatively abstract for the most people. A comparison with examples as we know them form Earth, may help to give a better understandig of the size ratios. The following image shows the famous Hollywood sign in Los Angeles Wikipedia Link and the ATLAS lettering as transparent image and true to scale.

Click on image to enlarge

The ATLAS lettering has a total length of about 80 meters. The individual letters are about 33 meters high, slightly more than twice as high as the letters of the Hollywood lettering. The arrangement of the letters is here arranged exactly as it is visible on the Mars image. The juxtaposition and superposition of the reconstructed ATLAS lettering with the unedited image shows again the parallels between the two images.

Click on image to enlarge

Visualization of the Size Ratios - The "Water" Fountain

The "King Fahd" water fountain, also known as the Jeddah Fountain (on the west coast of Saudi Arabia), is considered to be the tallest water fountain in the world.

Links: "The "King Fahd" water fountain in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

The fountain can shoot a jet of water to a height of 312 meters. That's not enough to reach the 480 meter fountain of the ATLAS station, but it is important to note that the "water" jet at the ATLAS station performs sideways and moreover the Mars has a much smaller gravity and a much thinner atmosphere. So, it would be technically and physically not impossible to create such a water jet with terrestrial technology.

Visualization of the Size Ratios - Cave Entrances/Tunnel Driveways

With its width of 100 meters, the tunnel entrance of the ATLAS station is currently unlike to any earthly counterpart. Also, the smaller driveway with a width of 60 meters is unprecedented. The ability to construct such large tunnel structures is undoubtedly only possible for builders, which have a technology that is superior to that of ours.

The currently widest artificial tunnel in the world is the Yangtze River Tunnel in Shanghai. This one has a path width of 13.7 meters. However, other tunnel systems with larger path widths are already under construction or in planning. There exist already tunnel boring machines with a diameter of 19 meters. Accordingly, one can expect that in the course of technological development, larger tunnel systems will be built.

A viable approach to visualize the sizes, is to use natural cave entrances as examples which comply with the structures on Mars, as well as other examples that even surpass the Mars structures. This raises the question whether existing cave structures have been used and were extended to build the plants inside the rocks. That would be under certain circumstances much easier to implement and would also represent a viable mean for earthly endeavors.

Bilder Tunnel Driveway - ATLAS Station
The main entrance to the ATLAS station in Aram Chaos. The total width measures about 100 meters. The entrance, however, divides early in two separate routes, each of them with a width of about 60 meters. It is the same size that correspondes to the width of the side entrance of the ATLAS station or with the path-width of the ramp that leads to the 'hollow' Mountain.
Son Doong Cave Entrance
The Son Doong cave entrance in Vietnam. More than 150 meters wide and nearly 200 feet high
Teng Long Dong Cave Entrance
The entrance of the Teng Long Dong (translated: Ascending Dragon) cave in China. 64 meters wide and 74 meters high
Niah Cave Entrance
The main entrance to the Niah cave in Malaysia. 250 meters wide and 46 meters high
Tunnel Boring Machine
Tunnel boring machines are currently the most effective method for the construction of tunnel systems. The machine shown here was used in the construction of the Gotthard base tunnel and has a diameter of nearly 9 meters
Multifunction station at Faido in Switzerland
The so-called multifunction station at Faido in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland, A Y-shaped branching brings together the east and west tunnel. By enlarging of this scenario by about six and a half times, one would have roughly the same dimensions as those on the ATLAS station in Aram Chaos
North Entrance - Cheyenne Mountain
The northern tunnel entrance to the Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center in the Rocky Moutains of Colorado. The entrance tunnel is only 9 feet wide. The effort, however, to set up this mountain into a military command center, points out what technical possibilities already exist. An area of approximately 4.5 hectares (18000 square meters) extends over a network of chambers and tunnels, that lie more than half a kilometer below massive granite

To enlarge click on one of the images

According to researchers who worked out the plans for the construction of constanty habitable stations on the Moon and Mars for the space agencies, the use of natural caves that are formed by cooled lava tubes, is a possible option, to build protected residential areas fast and resource saving - Link External Link.

Visualization of the Size Ratios - The Dragon Mouth

With 174 meters, the dragon mouth in Aram Chaos is one of those examples that are impressive for their size. Like the tunnel entrance to the ATLAS station there are hardly comparable monuments. The entrance to the Buddhist temple of Wat Ban Tham cave in Thailand is one of the few examples that also have a large entrance in the shape of a dragon mouth. But with a width of about 5 meters this one is a dwarf compared with its counterpart on Mars.

Click on image to enlarge

In terms of sculptures in general and in relation to such sizes, an appropiate example on earth would be the "Crazy Horse Memorial", located about 14 km southwest of Mount Rushmore in the Black Hills in South Dakota. However, this sculpture is not yet completed. After completion this sculpture will be 195 m long and 172 m high. So it is quite possible that even such large sculptures can be made by the hand of man.

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